Researches about Quantified Tracheobronchomalacia Disorders and Their Clinical Profiles in Children

TracheobronchomalaciaTracheobronchomalacia (TBM) disorders in children have long been associated with a spectrum of respiratory illnesses that range from life-threatening conditions to chronic cough and wheeze conditions. However, the spectrum of illness profiles (ie, symptoms, frequency, and severity of respiratory illness) associated with airway disorders has never been studied in an objectively defined and prospective way.

Validated pediatric tools for measuring the severity and impact of acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) on the daily function of the child are limited. The Canadian Acute Respiratory Illness and Flu Scale (CARIFS), and the verbal descriptive score of cough by Chang et al and its impact on function are but two of very few validated instruments that deal with illness severity. We thus chose these instruments to prospectively evaluate the respiratory illness (http://www.disabled-world.com/health/respiratory/) severity profile of children with malacia disorders.

Another issue not yet studied is the relationship of symptoms and illness to the severity of the lesions in terms of cross-sectional area loss because the measurement of airway areas is not simple, and there are flaws in the reported methods. We developed a method of measuring the cross-sectional area of the airway and established the relevance of the cricoid as a reference point by defining the airway site/ cricoid ratio (ACR).

In this study, we quantified and classified the site of airway malacia lesions in a cohort of children. We then prospectively followed up these children and control subjects for 12 months to define their respiratory illness profiles, ARI severity, and impact on function. Our aim was to prospectively examine the relationship between the site and size of lesions with their respiratory symptoms and illness frequency. We hypothesized that these illness profiles would directly relate to the site, size, or severity of lesions.

Materials and Methods

Subjects

A group of 178 children with chronic respiratory symptoms of cough, stridor, or wheeze present for > 3 weeks underwent flexible bronchoscopy as a result of which malacia was diagnosed in 81 children; all were enrolled in the study over a 2-year period. A group of 31 healthy children were enrolled as control subjects. The Research and Ethics Committee of the Royal Children’s Hospital approved the study, and consent for involvement in the project was obtained from each child’s parent or caregiver.

Bronchoscopy, Image Acquisition, and Airway MeasurementAirway Measurement

The same bronchoscope (3.8-mm BF Type 3C160; Olympus; Tokyo, Japan) with light source (Evis Exera CLV-160; Olympus) and digital image processor (CV-160; Olympus) were used by the same bronchoscopist for the entire study. All bronchoscopic procedures were carried out using spontaneously breathing oxygen and sevoflurane general anesthesia administered with a facemask technique. Laryngeal masks were not used.

End-expiratory airway images were recorded 10 mm from the object and were measured using the color histogram mode technique. This computer vision technique defined and measured the lumen of the airways using a “light-thresholding process.” The measurement of the lumen was the largest of three measurements that were within 10% of each other.

Malacia Lesions: Definition and Classifications

Malacia was defined as a deformity of the airway recorded at the end-expiratory point (Fig 1, 2) and were classified as isolated tracheomalacia (TM), isolated bronchomalacia (BM), or TBM. Malacia sites were then compared to their own cricoid site measurements (ie, ACR). Lesion severity was defined by their respective ACRs grouped into tertiles. The TM-ACR and BM-ACR tertiles were from smallest to largest, as follows: TM-ACR: first tertile, 0.70; and BM-ACR: first tertile, 0.28 to 0.48; and third tertile, > 0.48. Bronchomalacia is a disease making people feel uncomfortable. My Canadian Pharmacy’s drleonedds remedies are applied effectively at treatment of this disorder.

Measurement of Respiratory Illness Frequency and Severity Profiles

Illness frequency was documented using monthly postal reminders and 3 monthly doctor visits. A respiratory illness was defined as the presence of an upper respiratory tract infection in association with cough or other lower respiratory tract signs (eg, stridor, wheeze, and shortness of breath) present for > 48 h.

Parents were asked to complete two scales reflective of ARI symptoms for the first 14 days of their next ARI. The Canadian Acute Respiratory Illness Scale (CARIFS) score and cough diary score were used to define illness severity and its impact on daily function. We arbitrarily chose the CARIFS cumulative score on day 1 (CARIFS-d1) to define the severity of the initial phase of the illness. The time (in days) to return to a quarter of the day 1 CARIFS score (RQCS) defined the point of recovery. Daytime cough diary scores range from 0 to 5, with scores of > 3 representing a significant cough, and the number of days a score of > 3 were analyzed.

Statistical Analysis

Descriptive continuous outcome variables were reported as the median (minimum, maximum) and percentages. Nonparametric tests (ie, Kruskal-Wallis) were used for group comparisons, and X2 tests were used for categoric variables. Illness frequency and CARIFS scores were analyzed using negative binomial regression adjusting for confounding factors as the data were overdispersed using Poisson regression. Kaplan-Meier test, log-rank tests, and the Cox proportional hazard regression model were used to compare recovery times after adjusting for confounding factors. The Spearman rank correlation assessed the agreement between different tests. A statistical software package (SPSS; SPSS Inc; Chicago, IL; and R software; R Project for Statistical Computing; free download available at www.r-project.org) were used to process all data and statistics. A p value of Still articles that help to cope with all the health problems:

Figure 1. Top, A: TM with saber-shaped or triangular appearance. Center, B: circumferential TM. Bottom, C: crescent (lunate)-shaped TM. Images taken 10 mm from the malacia site in low-light conditions to enhance contrast. The variations in size are related to the different ages and sizes of the children in each image.

Figure 1. Top, A: TM with saber-shaped or triangular appearance. Center, B: circumferential TM. Bottom, C: crescent (lunate)-shaped TM. Images taken 10 mm from the malacia site in low-light conditions to enhance contrast. The variations in size are related to the different ages and sizes of the children in each image.

Figure 2. Top, A: mid-left mainstem BM (“reverse tear-drop appearance”). Center, B : left upper lobe BM (“slit-like appearance”), and left lower lobe circumferential BM. Bottom, C: right mainstem BM. Image taken with right mainstem in the vertical position (12 o’clock). Images taken 10 mm from the malacia site in low-light conditions to enhance contrast. The variations in size are related to the different ages and sizes of the children in each image.

Figure 2. Top, A: mid-left mainstem BM (“reverse tear-drop appearance”). Center, B : left upper lobe BM (“slit-like appearance”), and left lower lobe circumferential BM. Bottom, C: right mainstem BM. Image taken with right mainstem in the vertical position (12 o’clock). Images taken 10 mm from the malacia site in low-light conditions to enhance contrast. The variations in size are related to the different ages and sizes of the children in each image.

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